Low Bandwidth Version
A | B
| C | D | E | F
| G | H | I | J
| K | L | M | N
| O | P | Q | R | S
| T | U | V | W
| X | Y | Z |
(1870-1937) An early associate of Sigmund Freud and founder of the
school of individual psychology. Adler rejected Freud's emphasis on sex, and maintained
that personality difficulties are rooted in a feeling of inferiority deriving from
restrictions on the individuals need for self-assertion.
(384-322 B.C.) a Greek philosopher who studied under Plato and later
tutored Alexander the Great. He taught that in the knowledge of something, the inquiry
into the purpose or function is primary. In contrast to Plato, reality takes a form but
does not embody it. Aristotle holds that, with the exception of God, form has no separate
existence from all matter.
aims at modifying behavior by reinforcing acceptable behavior and
suppressing undesirable behavior. The therapist employs any of various techniques of
reward and punishment including aversion therapy, desensitization, or guided imagery. The
learning theory of the psychologist B.F. Skinner and others is the basis for most behavior
therapies. In Skinners principle of extinction, a behavior pattern that is not
reinforced, or rewarded, will be extinguished or rendered inoperative. For example, if
smoking is made unpleasant for the smoker, then the smoking habit may be curbed or given
up. Behavior therapy is used in private and institutional therapy, in group and individual
settings, to treat such disorders as drug addiction, alcoholism, and phobias.
holds that repressed emotions and desires affect the body and psyche
by creating chronic muscular tension and diminished vitality and energy. Through physical
exercises, breathing techniques, verbal psychotherapy, or other forms of emotional-release
work, the therapist attempts to loosen this character armor and restore natural
technique used especially for stress-related conditions such as
asthma, migraines, insomnia and high blood pressure. Biofeedback is a way of monitoring
minute metabolic changes in ones body with the aid of sensitive machines.
an energy field that suffuses living bodies and extends several
inches beyond the body. This concept is employed in therapies such as healing touch,
medical qigong, therapeutic touch, and reiki. In these therapies, the biofield from a
practitioners hands is joined to the recipients biofield in order to treat an illness or
to promote health. There is no consensus on what biofield is; some say it is spiritual
energy, others say it is an electromagnetic field.
a movement-reeducation approach that explores how the bodys
systems contribute to movement and self-awareness. The approach also emphasizes movement
patterns that develop during infancy and childhood. Incorporates guided movement,
exercise, imagery and hands-on work.
seeks to enhance the psychotherapeutic process by incorporating a
range of massage, bodywork and movement techniques. Acknowledging the mind-body link,
practitioners may use light touch, soft or deep-tissue manipulation, breathing techniques,
movement, exercise or body awareness techniques to help address emotional issues.
general term for a variety of techniques that use patterned
breathing to promote physical, mental and/or spiritual well-being. Some techniques use the
breath in a calm, peaceful way to induce relaxation or manage pain, while others use
stronger breathing to stimulate emotions and emotional release.
an approach to therapy which emphasizes acceptance of the client and
unconditional positive regard.
one of the largest subdisciplines of psychology. Clinical
psychologists work in hospitals, clinics, and private practice and their main concern is
the diagnoses and treatment of learning and emotional problems.
cognitive psychology applies to the study of thinking, concept
formation, and problem solving. This therapy emphasizes changing how the client thinks.
a basic form of learning in which an original natural stimulus, when
paired with another stimulus capable of eliciting a reflexive response, comes to elicit
that response through association.
an unconscious defense mechanism characterized by refusal to
acknowledge painful realities, thoughts, and feelings.
affective disorder characterized by extreme sadness and guilt,
immobility due to lethargy or apathy, and inability to enjoy normal living and activities.
philosophical assumption that all behavior and observable events
mental activity associated with the rapid-eye-movement period of
sleep. Generally consists of visual images and may reflect bodily disturbances or external
stimuli. In primitive and ancient cultures, dreams played an extensive role in myth and
religion. Freud emphasized dreams as keys to the makeup of the individual and
distinguished between the experienced content of a dream and the actual meaning of the
dream. Jung held that dreams are not limited to the personal unconscious but may also be
shaped by archetypes that originate in the collective unconscious of the human species.
various drugs are used to alleviate symptoms of some mental
illnesses. Lithium is used in alleviating symptoms of manic depression. Tranquilizers are
used to reduce anxiety. All drugs have side effects, such as Ritalin, which is prescribed
for hyperactive children, and can retard physical growth.
in philosophy and theology, system that explains all phenomena in
terms of two distinct and irreducible principles, e.g., ideas and matter (as in Plato,
Aristotle, and modern metaphysics) or mind and matter (as in psychology). In theology the
term refers to a concept of opposing principles, e.g., good and evil.
use the arts to promote physical & mental health and personal
growth. Examples of expressive therapies include art therapy, dance therapy, drama
therapy, music therapy, poetry, and psychodrama.
attempts to identify and correct disruptive and unhealthy patterns
that set demands and expectations of some family members have for others.
an ancient Chinese practice of configuring home or work environments
to promote health, happiness, prosperity. Feng shui consultants may advise clients to make
adjustments in their surroundings, from color selection to furniture placement, to promote
a healthy flow of chi, or vital energy.
are intended to alleviate negative emotional states that may
contribute to illness or hinder personal growth. Drops of a solution infused with the
captured essence of a flower are placed under the tongue or in a beverage. The appropriate
essences are chosen, focusing on the clients emotional state rather than on a particular
FREUD, SIGMUND (1856-1939),
was one of the first to suggest workable cures for mental disorders.
Although Freuds theories were at first disputed, his work became the foundation for
treating psychiatric disorders by psychoanalysis. In recent times his theories have once
again been challenged.
FROMM, ERICH (1900-1980).
American psychoanalyst who held that the individual is a product of
society and that in industrial society, human beings have become estranged from
In Gestalt therapy, the analyst encourages clients to release their
emotions and to recognize these emotions for what they are. Emphasizes the individuals
movement towards wholeness. It tends to be somewhat confrontational and directly challenge
the clients defenses against coming to grips with their problems. This therapy holds that
a persons inability to successfully integrate the parts of his or her personality
into a healthy whole may lie at the root of psychological disturbance.
HIPPOCRATES (460B.C.-370 B.C.)
recognized as the father of medicine, he based medicine on objective
observation and deductive reasoning. Although he accepted the belief that disease results
from an imbalance of the body, he maintained that outside forces influenced the
disturbance. He taught that medicine should build the patients strength through diet
and hygiene, resorting to more drastic treatment only when necessary. The Hippocratic
Oath, an ethical code formulated in ancient Greece and still administered to medical
graduates in many universities, cannot be directly credited to him.
(1885-1952) founded the American Institute of Psychoanalysis in
1941. Deviating from orthodox Freudian analysis, she emphasized environmental and
cultural, rather than biological, factors in neurosis.
based on the belief that each individual strives for wholeness and
health. Intended to help remove the emotional barriers to good mental health. For example,
in client-centered therapy, the therapist selectively repeats what the client says to make
the client aware of the thoughts and emotions that are blocking mental health. In this
approach, the therapist shows unconditional, positive regard for the patient.
although the condition resembles normal sleep, scientists have found
that the brain wave patterns of hypnotized subjects are much closer to the patterns of
deep relaxation. Hypnosis is now generally viewed as a form of attentive, receptive,
highly focused concentration in which external events are omitted or disregarded. Widely
used by surgeons, dentists, and psychotherapists to relieve anxiety or as an anesthetic.
Used to relax a patient, reduce resistance to therapy, facilitate memory, to address
stopping smoking, eating less, or fighting fears.
JIN SHIN DO
developed by a psychotherapist, it combines acupressure, Taoist
yogic breathing and Reichian segmental theory (addresses how emotional tension affects the
physical body) with the goal of releasing physical & emotional tension and armoring.
Aims to promote a state in which the patient can address the emotional factors that
underlie various physical conditions.
JUNG, CARL (1875-1961).
Early follower of Sigmund Freud, Jung came to disagree with Freud
and established the discipline of analytical psychology. He classified personality into
introverts and extroverts and developed a theory of the unconscious mind that included
both the personal and the collective. Along with Freud, Jung has perhaps had the most
effect on modern psychology.
a set of bright, full-spectrum light bulbs inside a box with a
reflective background and diffusing screen; produces light thats 10 to 20 times
stronger than ordinary indoor light. Used to treat winter depression, or SAD (seasonal
affective disorder). Treatment typically involves spending 15 minutes to 3 hours in front
of a light box every day in the fall, winter, and early spring. Research suggests that
bright lights help regulate the bodys internal clock, which controls hormone
secretion and sleep patterns.
magnetic field therapy or bio-magnetic therapy involves the use of
magnets, magnetic devices or magnetic fields to treat a variety of physical and emotional
conditions, including circulatory problems, certain forms of arthritis, chronic pain,
sleep disorders, and stress.
MEDICINE, HOLISTIC or WHOLISTIC
Wholistic medicine is a broadly descriptive term for a healing
philosophy that views a patient as a whole person, not as just a disease or a collection
of symptoms. In the course of treatment, wholistic medical practitioners may address
emotional and spiritual dimensions as well as the nutritional, environmental and lifestyle
factors that may contribute to an illness. Many wholistic practitioners combine
conventional forms of treatment with natural or alternative treatments.
Discipline in which the mind is focused on a single point of
reference. Employed since ancient times in various forms by all religions, the practice
gained greater notice in the postwar U.S. as interest in Zen Buddhism rose. Meditation is
now used by many nonreligious adherents as a method of stress reduction; known to lower
levels of cortisol, a hormone released in response to stress. Enhances recuperation and
improves the bodys resistance to disease.
a therapeutic approach based on the idea that expressing affection
for a pet helps people feel happier, maintain a positive outlook, and therefore improve
their health. According to several studies, having a pet can reduce stress, lower blood
pressure, and ward off loneliness and depression. Many nursing homes and some prisons have
developed pet therapy programs, with excellent results.
(427-347 B.C.) a pupil and friend of Socrates. Plato founded (c.387
B.C.) The Academy near Athens, where he taught until his death. His most famous pupil was
Aristotle. Platos dialogues show the relationship between the soul, the state and
the cosmos, in the study of law, mathematics, philosophic problems, and natural science.
He regarded the rational soul as immortal, and he believed in a world soul and a creator
of the physical world. He argued for the independent reality of ideas as the only
guarantee of ethical standards and of objective scientific knowledge. He taught that only
he who understands the harmony of all parts of the universe is capable of ruling the just
state. He touched upon virtually every problem that has occupied subsequent philosophers
and his teachings have been among the most influential in Western civilization.
the yogic concept of a cosmic energy or life force, similar to the
Chinese idea of chi, that enters the body with the breath. Prana is thought to flow
through the body, bringing health and vitality. It is considered the vital link between
the spiritual self and the material self.
attribution of ones attitudes, feelings, or desires to someone or
something as an unconscious defense against anxiety or guilt.
a medical specialty focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of
disorder behavior. Psychiatry is the medical specialty that is concerned with the
diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. Psychiatrists are doctors who
have completed a residency in psychiatry. They diagnose mental illness through clinical
interviews and psychological tests and by examining the patients history and studying the
causes of mental illness and the different treatment procedures.
an approach to therapy, human nature, and personality theory
introduced by Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalysis emphasizes the role of unconscious motivation
in conscious behavior. By being aware of the patients verbal and nonverbal
communications, psychoanalysts can offer interpretations.
patients play different roles in a brief drama. For example, a
person having difficulty finding a job might imagine a job interview and alternately play
the roles of employer and prospective employee. By playing both roles the client develops
skills in dealing with job interviews.
the study of the way people think and behave. The field of
psychology has a number of subdisciplines devoted to the study of different levels and
contexts of human thought and behavior. Social psychology, for example, deals with human
thought and action in a social context, while physiological psychology is concerned with
thought and behavior at the level of neurology. Comparative psychology compares the
thoughts and behavior of humans with that of other species. Abnormal psychology studies
atypical thought and action.
use of psychological methods to treat abnormal or disordered
RANK, OTTO, (1884-1937)
one of Sigmund Freuds first and most valued pupils. Rank
analyzed the underlying significance of myths. He later diverged from Freud and emphasized
the birth trauma as the central cause of neurosis.
False, fallacious, evasive reasoning, in order to avoid
unpleasantness and unresolved conflicts.
also known as conscious-connected breathing or vivation. A technique
in which the therapist guides clients through breathing exercises to help them
re-experience past memories - including birth - and let go of emotional tensions stored in
psychological defense mechanism, viewed as a return to an earlier
mode of behavior, thought, or feeling. The unconscious process that helps the mind resolve
conflicts or lessen anxiety by returning to forms of gratification previously abandoned.
in Rogers view, people have a basic need to realize their
abilities and attain psychological health and well-being. His concept of client-centered
therapy holds that the role of the counselor is not to resolve clients conflicts,
but rather to help them become the best they can be. A Rogerian counselor might help
clients explore and discover the reasons for occupational choices or emotional problems.
The discovery would be the clients not the counselors.
RUBENFELD SYNERGY METHOD
gentle touch, movement, verbal exchange, and imagination used to
access memories and emotions locked in the body. Integrates elements of the Alexander
Technique, Feldenkrais Method, Gestalt and Hypnotherapy. Combines bodywork and
psychotherapy. May be used for physical or emotional problems or for personal growth.
Fully realizing ones individual human potential.
Self-conscious state of focusing attention on oneself.
extreme procedure used primarily as a last resort when no other
methods seem to work. The brain can be likened to an extraordinarily complex electrical
circuit board; the shock presumably helps to break up the unhealthy brain circuits that
cause mental distress.
strong supporter of behaviorism. Advocated the use of controlled,
scientific methods in studying human behavior through a persons response to the
environment. His work has influenced modern guidance and counseling. In Skinners
view, all behavior is controlled by reinforcements - if one is offered a positive
stimulus, he will respond in a positive way. From this standpoint, emotional problems are
determined by the pattern of reinforcements a young person experiences while growing up. A
counselor working in this tradition would explore with the client the reinforcements
provided by the clients problematic ways of confronting issues in life.
(469-399 B.C.) Socrates left no writings, and most of our knowledge
of him and his teachings comes from the dialogues of his most famous pupil. He spent his
time discussing virtue, justice, and piety, seeking wisdom about right conduct so that he
might guide the moral and intellectual improvement of Athens. Using a method now known as
the Socratic dialogue, or dialectic, he drew forth knowledge from his students by asking
questions and examining the implications of their answers. He equated virtue with
knowledge of ones true self, holding that no one knowingly does wrong. He looked
upon the soul as the seat of both waking consciousness and moral character, and held the
universe to be purposively mind-ordered.
SULLIVAN, HARRY STACK, (1892-1949)
believed that psychoanalysis needs to be supplemented by studying
the impact of cultural forces on personality. Contributed to the understanding
schizophrenia and obsessional states.
treatment and care of someone to combat disease, injury, or mental
TYPE A PERSONALITY
characterized by impatience, concern with time, punctuality, anger,
TYPE B PERSONALITY
personality profile that is relaxed, unhurried, and cooperative.
WATSON, J. B.
(1878-1958) originated behaviorism,
where behavior is described in
terms of physiological responses to stimuli; rejects concept of conscious or unconscious
Any omission from this list is accidental, not intentional. The
appearance of a religion or form of therapy in this list is provided for information and
is not meant as an endorsement of any kind.
"dictionary" was compiled by InnerSelf Magazine staff, from
various sources: books, directories, glossaries, etc.
Printer Friendly Page