"It doesn't matter how old you are or if you're in a wealthy country or a poorer one or if you've had it before—you can get it again," says Sarah M. Bartsch. "And it is really unpleasant. But if we don't focus on norovirus and teach people how to prevent it, little headway will be made to combat it."
The news often mentions norovirus when it’s relatively contained to a cruise ship or college campus, but it actually sickens nearly 700 million people a year.
The illness causes roughly $4.2 billion in health care costs and $60.3 billion in societal costs, new research concludes.
“It has been flying under the radar for too long.”
The findings, published online in the journal PLOS ONE, are believed to be the first to look at the global economic burden of norovirus, which is common in both wealthy and poor nations. The study suggests that much more attention is needed to combat a disease that kills approximately 219,000 a year around the world, the researchers say.
“You only seem to hear about it when people get sick on a cruise ship or at a restaurant, but norovirus is everywhere,” says study leader Sarah M. Bartsch, a research associate at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.
“It doesn’t matter how old you are or if you’re in a wealthy country or a poorer one or if you’ve had it before—you can get it again,” Bartsch says. “And it is really unpleasant. But if we don’t focus on norovirus and teach people how to prevent it, little headway will be made to combat it.”
‘Flying under the radar’
The study’s senior author, Bruce Y. Lee, associate professor of international health at the Bloomberg School, says that the costs associated with norovirus are higher than for many diseases that get more attention. For instance, the burden of rotavirus, a diarrheal disease that kills many babies but rarely endangers anyone over age 5, was estimated at $2 billion a year before a vaccine was rolled out.
“Our study presents an economic argument for greater consideration of norovirus,” Lee says. “It has been flying under the radar for too long.”
Norovirus is easily transmissible and can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Fewer than 1 percent of cases are associated with outbreaks, although those get the most public notice. There is no vaccine or treatment. Researchers say norovirus is not routinely tested for and the number of cases may be an underestimate.
In 2015, there were norovirus outbreaks reported on 23 cruise ships with US ports of call, affecting more than 2,500 passengers and crew, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2016, news reports have cited outbreaks at colleges and universities in Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, California, and New York state. Restaurants are another frequently reported arena for transmission of the disease.
The whole burden
Bartsch and colleagues developed a computer model to estimate both medical costs and other economic costs of norovirus. Most notable among the latter is the cost of missed work, underperformance while sick, and premature death. The model estimated the cost for 233 countries, regions, and territories for which the United Nations has population data.
“Lost productivity is a big part of the cost,” Lee says. “By just focusing on health care costs, or simple measures such as death caused by the disease, we miss a lot of the burden. Productivity losses tend to go unrecognized, but make up 94 percent of the global economic burden of norovirus.”
The researchers say they hope their work will help funding agencies and public health bodies decide where to best spend money for intervention and control, including for public education. Hand washing, proper food preparation, better food and water sources, and isolation of those who are sick are some methods for protecting against norovirus.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the Global Obesity Prevention Center at the Bloomberg School supported the work.
Source: Johns Hopkins University
Binding: Kindle Edition
Format: Kindle eBook
Studio: Eternal Spiral Books, http://EternalSpiralBooks.com
Label: Eternal Spiral Books, http://EternalSpiralBooks.com
Publisher: Eternal Spiral Books, http://EternalSpiralBooks.com
Manufacturer: Eternal Spiral Books, http://EternalSpiralBooks.com
Norovirus is commonly called 'food poisoning' or 'stomach flu'. It causes over 21 million cases of stomach upset (gastroenteritis) every year in the United States and more than 800 deaths. As of January 2013, however, a whole new strain of Norovirus began sweeping throughout the globe and spreading from coast to coast in the United States, and is continuing to spread and even mutate in 2014.
In this report, popular health writer Carolyn Stone gives you the essentials on Norovirus: what it is, where it comes from, how people become infected, and how to prevent it, in order to keep you and your family safe. Learn the symptoms of norovirus infection and the best ways to stop it from spreading to the rest of your family, work colleagues and the general public if you do catch it.
Learn the best ways to deal with the main symptoms of norovirus, including dehydration. Find out how to deal safely with contaminated laundry to stop the spread of the disease.
Learn more about the major 'hot spots' in your home where the virus cold easily spread if you are not careful, and the best ways to keep all of the members of your family as safe as possible if one of you does become ill.
Discover valuable health resources, important research and findings related to norovirus, the best sources of the latest news on the virus, and much more.
Norovirus on its own is bad enough. It can also come at the same time as flu season, leading to even more misery. Foodborne outbreaks of norovirus happen all year round. It also spreads like wildfire from person to person in social settings, from schools, hospitals and nursing homes, to summer camps and cruise ships. Don't let norovirus threaten the health of the younger and older members of your family, or ruin your vacation. Take steps today to avoid norovirus. Even if you do catch it, learn all you can about how to stop it from spreading, to keep safe all those you care about.
You will also receive regular updates of this title while these severe outbreaks continue.
Norovirus: How to Stay Safe
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WHAT'S IN THIS GUIDE
CHAPTER 1-Norovirus: What is It?
CHAPTER 2-How is Norovirus Spread?
CHAPTER 3-What are the Symptoms if You Have Contracted Norovirus?
CHAPTER 4-What are the Best Ways to Prevent You or Your Family from Becoming Ill with Norovirus?
CHAPTER 5-When is it Time to See a Doctor?
CHAPTER 6-Household Hot Spots
CHAPTER 7-Hot Spots Outside the Home
NOROVIRUS IN THE NEWS
NOROVIRUS OUTBREAK REPORTS
SUMMARY OF STEPS TO TAKE TO PREVENT ILLNESS AND THE SPREAD OF NOROVIRUS
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Carolyn Stone is a freelance journalist and health writer who has worked in consumer health publishing and continuing medical education. She is the author of over 70 health and self-help guides designed to empower readers to live better lives.
ABOUT ETERNAL SPIRAL BOOKS
Eternal Spiral Books is a royalty-paying publisher of non-fiction works by establish writers with an impressive portfolio of original writing plus expertise and credentials in their respective fields. We publish high-quality books at affordable prices. The aim of each guide is to help you improve your life by taking practical action steps to accomplish your goals and live your best life.
Binding: Kindle Edition
Format: Kindle eBook
Studio: Eva Marbach Verlag
Label: Eva Marbach Verlag
Publisher: Eva Marbach Verlag
Manufacturer: Eva Marbach Verlag
aller Restaurants, Kantinen, Kreuzfahrtschiffe, Krankenhäuser, Kindergärten und Schulen geworden.
Die hochansteckende Magen-Darm-Infektion wirft jedes Jahr tausende von Menschen
mit unvermittelter Plötzlichkeit aufs Krankenbett und quält die Betroffenen für mehrere Tage mit Erbrechen und Durchfall.
Wenn man sich auf die Gefahr durch den Norovirus einstellt
kann man eine Infektion durch geeignete Vorbeuge-Maßnahmen verhindern.
Falls es einen doch erwischt, ist es wichtig zu wissen,
was man tun kann, damit die Norovirus-Infektion möglichst mild verläuft.
Was bietet dieses E-Book?
Dieses kleine E-Book erklärt, wie die Infektion mit dem Norovirus vonstatten geht und wie man sie verhindern kann.
Für den Fall der Erkrankung gibt es Behandlungstipps aus Schulmedizin, Homöopathie, Schüsslersalzen, Heilpflanzen, Akupressur und Hausmitteln
Aus dem Inhalt
- Der Noro-Virus
- Heilkräuter gegen Norovirus-Infektion
- Schüssler-Salze gegen Norovirus-Infektion
- Homöopathische Mittel gegen Norovirus-Infektion
- Akupressurpunkte gegen Norovirus-Infektion
- ACADEMIC PRESS
- Paul K S Chan
- Hoi Shan Kwan
- Martin C.W. Chan
Studio: Academic Press
Label: Academic Press
Publisher: Academic Press
Manufacturer: Academic Press
The Norovirus: Features, Detection and Prevention of Foodborne Disease is a unique and valuable reference for both researchers in industry and students who need to understand how this specific pathogen behaves in order to improve control of food as a transmission of this infectious biological agent.
The information in the book provides essential, specific information to help further understand potential new strains of the pathogen, offering detection analysis and prevention strategies of the pathogen to assist in combatting the spread of foodborne illness. Written by national and international experts in the field, this book will be a practical source of information for food scientists, food microbiologists, food technologists, food industry workers, public health workers, and students.
- Provides detailed knowledge of food as a mode of transmission, of detection, and of the biology and impact of Norovirus
- Includes applications to other relevant strains of foodborne pathogens
- Presents foodborne disease outbreak case studies to enhance learning