Therapy Dogs Can Help Reduce Student Stress, Anxiety And Improve School Attendance


Therapy Dogs Can Help Reduce Student Stress, Anxiety And Improve School Attendance
Therapy dogs can decrease anxiety and stress in students, while getting them more excited about classroom activities. Howard County Library System/Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND

In the wake of the schools shootings in Florida, therapy dogs have been used as a way to provide comfort and support for students returning to school. Research has shown therapy dogs can reduce stress and provide a sense of connection in difficult situations.

Given the impact therapy dogs can have on student well-being, schools and universities are increasingly adopting therapy dog programs as an inexpensive way of providing social and emotional support for students.

What are therapy dogs?

It’s important to note therapy dogs are not service dogs. A service dog is an assistance dog that focuses on its owner to the exclusion of all else. Service dogs are trained to provide specific support for individuals with disabilities such as visual or hearing difficulties, seizure disorders, mobility challenges, and/or diabetes.

The role of therapy dogs is to react and respond to people and their environment, under the guidance and direction of their owner. For example, an individual might be encouraged to gently pat or talk to a dog to teach sensitive touch and help them be calm.

Therapy dogs can also be used as part of animal assisted therapy. This aims to improve a person’s social, cognitive and emotional functioning. A health care professional who uses a therapy dog in treatment may be viewed as less threatening, potentially increasing the connection between the client and professional.

There are also animal-assisted activities, which is an umbrella term covering many different ways animals can be used to help humans. One example is to facilitate emotional or physical mental health and wellbeing through pet therapy or the presence of therapy dogs. These activities aren’t necessarily overseen by a professional, nor are they specific psychological interventions.

Research suggests using therapy dogs in response to traumatic events can help reduce symptoms of depression, post traumatic stress disorder and anxiety.

So, what can happen psychologically for people using therapy dogs?

The human-animal bond

The human-animal bond can impact people and animals in positive ways. Research shows therapy dogs can reduce stress physiologically (cortisol levels) and increase attachment responses that trigger oxytocin – a hormone that increases trust in humans.

Dogs also react positively to animal-assisted activities. In response to the human-animal bond, dogs produce oxytocin and decrease their cortisol levels when connecting with their owner. Often dogs feel the same when engaging in animal assisted activities as if they were at home, depending on the environmental context.

Benefits of therapy dogs

Animal assisted therapy can:

More recently, therapy dogs are being used as a form of engagement with students at school and university.

Benefits of therapy dogs at school

A recent report highlighted children working with therapy dogs experienced increased motivation for learning, resulting in improved outcomes.

Therapy dogs are being used to support children with social and emotional learning needs, which in turn can assist with literacy development.

Research into the effects of therapy dogs in schools is showing a range of benefits including:

Despite these known benefits, many schools choose not to have therapy dog programs due to perceived risks. These range from concerns about sanitation issues to the suitability of dog temperament when working with children. But therapy dogs and owners are carefully selected and put through a strict testing regime prior to acceptance into any program.

The main reason for the lack of take up has been linked to the limited research into the benefits of therapy dogs in schools.

Benefits of therapy dogs at university

Researchers have found university students reported significantly less stress and anxiety, and increased happiness and energy, immediately following spending time in a drop-in session with a dog present, when compared to a control group of students who didn’t spend any time with a therapy dog.

Generally, therapy dog programs rely on volunteer organisations. One example is Story Dogs, who currently have 323 volunteer dog teams in 185 schools across NSW, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania, SA, WA, and ACT. In total, they help 1,615 children each week.

The ConversationResearch into these programs is needed to help further understand the impacts of therapy dogs, especially on student learning and academic outcomes. Lack of funding is setting this research back. University partnerships are one solution to address this.

About The Author

Christine Grove, Educational Psychologist and Lecturer, Monash University and Linda Henderson, Senior Lecturer, Monash University

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

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Teaming With Your Therapy Dog (New Directions in the Human-Animal Bond)

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Editorial Review: This book reminds all handlers who work on teaming with their dogs that they must focus on their behavior, not just the animal’s. It provides general principles of teamwork that they can apply in their own way to work with their therapy dog. As the author writes, “The book explores a way of being conscious of what you do with and to your therapy dog to support him in his work. It describes functional principles of behavior you can learn and use immediately, independently or together as a package.” Using an exciting new methodology, the author outlines several STEPs for teaming with your dog: Speak conversationally, stay in touch with your dog, keep your eyes on your dog, maintain close proximity to your dog, and (most importantly) be fully present.

Therapy Dogs: Training Your Dog to Reach Others

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Editorial Review: Share the love and companionship of an animal with others by becoming a therapy dog team. Everything you need to know to select, socialize and train your dog for this important and rewarding work. Includes information about safety, liability and professionalism.

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You can take her with you...

If you're like most dog owners, you want a trustworthy companion you can take on family vacations, to ball games, on hikes, and to cafes and festivals. You want your dog to behave when you have guests, stay peacefully at hotels, ride calmly in elevators, and maintain proper doggie decorum in all kinds of situations.

Chances are, you've watched and admired assistance and therapy dogs who are attentive to their owners' needs no matter what. This book taps into the secrets of assistance and therapy dog trainers and shows you how to use focused foundation socialization training to make sure your dog is well behaved--even in unfamiliar environments loaded with distractions and temptations. It goes beyond typical behavioral training and basic commands and covers:

  • Evaluating your dog and recognizing traits that will affect her needs
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  • Creating a socialization program that makes your dog focused on you and confident in different environments
  • Reading your dog so you can anticipate her reactions and keep her focused on your directions

With these sophisticated training techniques, you'll turn your family pet into a sociable, take-anywhere dog who will always be welcome!


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